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THE NATURE OF ECONOMIC SYSTEM
What exactly is an economic system? Simply put, it’s a way of distributing a society’s resources to satisfy its citizens’ needs. Although every nation in the world has anunique way of distributing resources, economic systems all have certain features in common and may be measured in similar ways.
A society’s resources are referred to by economists as the factors of production. One factor of production, land, includes not only the real estate on the surface of the earth but also minerals, timber and water below. The second, labour, consists of the human resources used to produce goods and services. The third factor of production is capital, the machines, tools and buildings used to produce goods and services, as well as the money that buys other resources.
The fourth factor of production is embodied in people called entrepreneurs. They are the ones who develop new ways to use the other economic resources more efficiently. In some societies entrepreneurs risk losing only their reputations or their positions if they fall. In the USA entrepreneurs also risk losing their own personal resources.
A more sophisticated measurement of an economic system is the dollar value of all the final goods and services produced by the economy over a given period of time, gross national product (GNP). A rise in GNP is a sign of economic growth. In a rapidly evolving economy it is difficult to adjust GNP quickly enough to reflect people’s actual economic activities. The value of all the new banking services, for example, is not well represented in the government’s current calculations of GNP.
Nor is the value of the underground economy reflected in GNP figures. The values of bartering goods and services cannot be easily measured because money is not used in the transactions. In some less developed economies “underground” sources of income make up a substantial portion of the GNP. Even in the United States the underground economy is estimated to be worth as much as $550 billion a year or 15 percent of GNP.
- Answer the questions:
- What is an economic system?
- Why may economic systems be measured in similar ways?
- How do economists consider a society’s resources?
- How many factors of production do you know?
- What is land as a factor of production?
- How do you understand labour?
- What is understood under capital?
- What is the importance of entrepreneurs?
- How can you define gross national product?
- How are economic growth and GNP related?
- Supplement the statements:
- Although every nation in the world has a unique way of ____ resources all have
certain features in common and may___ ___ in similar ways.
- The fourth __ __ is embodied in people called __
3.Entrepreneurs _ losing only their reputations or their positions if they __
- A rise in __ __ is a sign of economic growth.
- The __ is estimated to __ __ as much as 15 percent of GNP.
III. Change the Present Simple of the sentences into the Past Simple:
- Entrepreneurs also risk losing their personal resources.
- What motivates hem to take risks, of trying anything new?
- What does labour consist of ?
- Figures of gross national product do not reflect the value of the underground economy.
- Money is not used in transaction.
- Add the sentences with the verbs “to be” or “to have”:
- What exactly _ an economic system?
- It _ a way of distributing a society’s resources.
- Every nation in the world _ a unique way of distributing resources.
- All economic systems _ certain features in common.
- They may _measured in similar ways.
- The third factor of production capital.
Questions Interviewers Ask
- 1, Why did you choose to interview with our organization?
- Tell about yourself.
- Describe your ideal job.
- How does your college education or work experience relate to this job?
- Why should we hire you rather than another candidate?
- 6. What do you know about our organization (products or services)
- Where do you want to be in five years? Ten years?
- Who are your models? Why?
- £ta you think you receivecl a’good education? In what ways?
- Do you prefer to work under supervision or on your own?
- What kind of boss do you prefer?
- How do you feel about working overtime?
- What are some good decisions you’ve made for yourself lately?
- What motivates you mostly in a job?
- What things do you do well? What are your talents?
An example of a job interview.
- Thank you for coming, Mr. Oliver. My name is Alan, I’m in charge of Human Resources.
- How do you do?
- Do have a seat. I see you are working for Educational Department at the moment. How long have you been
B, Since 1998. It’s not a very interesting job, and 1 am looking for something with more responsibilities. A. So you are ready for a change. B. Yes, I think it’s time to do something different. A. What languages do you speak? B. I can speak English, Spanish and a little of Italian.
- I’m impressed. Some of our contacts are with Japanese companies. Do you speak Japanese? B. No, I don’t, I am afraid. But I can always learn.
- Never mind. I’m going to introduce you to owr Sales and Marketing Director for some more technical questions. See you later.
MONEY YESTERDAY AND TODAY
When people make more production they need, they want to exchange it for something else. But what to do if the product is big and heavy? So people invented money. We use it to buy and sell goods and to make savings.
In old limes in different countries there were various types of money: animal skins and cattle, cocoa beans and salt, shells and stones. In our land our great-grandfathers used grain, fur skins and later -gold. In Kyiv Rus money was called hryvnia and now we have hryvnias too.
Paper banknote and metal coins are easy to hold, to save, to transfer and to use. That is why they replaced old kinds of money. Every country has its type of money that is called “a money unit”. When people travel from one slate to another they need to exchange money. There is an exchange rate for this. It is approximately equal all over the world for main money units at a certain moment of time, but changes from day to day. For example, one Austrian shilling is approximately equal to 10 USA dollars, one pound of sterling is approximately equal to 1.6 USA dollars, one USA dollar is approximately equal to 2 German marks and so on. The exchange rate depends on situation in currency market.
In Ukraine, like in other countries of the world, we may exchange hryvnias into other currency in banks or special booths called “Bureau of change”. They give a receipt in which it is written how much money you give, what the current exchange rate is and how much foreign currency you receive. But in Ukraine you can not use foreign currency to buy something or to pay for any service. You must use hryvnias only. The same situation is in every country of the world: people use only national currency in the country. However in many countries of Europe a new currency, common to all these countries, will be used starting from January I, 2002. It is called euro.
You may pay in cash (notes and coins), in cheques or credit cards. If you have a bank account you are given a cheque book and when you need to pay, it is necessary to write the sum, to sign the cheque, pull it out of the book and give the seller. If you have a special account for a credit card you simply call the sum and give your card number to the seller who fixes it and then takes the sum off your account. He gives you a bill as to other customers. If you need to take cash from your credit bank account you may get it from a bank or a bankomat. A bankomat is a device some bigger than a public telephone. You put your card into a slot, press some buttons to let the machine know what sum of money you need, take your card back and receive your cash from the bankomat. Usually banks take some money for service, the money is called commission and is not large.
- Finish the statements:
- When people make more production they need …
- We use money to …
- In old time in different countries there were …
- Paper banknote and metal coins are easy …
- When people travel from one state to another they need …
- The exchange rate depends on …
- In Ukraine we may change hryvnias into other currencies in …
- You may pay in …
- Usually banks take …
- Give the definitions for the following :
- “A money unit” is …
- “An exchange rate “is …
- “Bureau of change” is …
- “A cheque -book “is …
- “A credit card” is …
- ” A bank receipt “is …
- “A bankomat” is …
- “Money” is…
How Do Prices Work?
In Tokyo the pressure on space is so great that in some residential neighbourhoods a parking place costs $1,500 a month. To economize on this expensive space – and to lower the cost of car ownership and hence boost the sale of “car – Honda, Nissan and Toyota, three of Japan’s big car producers, have developed a parking machine that enables two cars to occupy the space of one. The most basic of these machines costs a mere $10,000 – less than 6 months’ worth of parking fees.
Answer these questions:
- Is the parking space very expensive in Tokyo?
- Why do you think it is?
- According to this item, what’s the parking fee a month in some parts of Tokyo?
- What machine was invented by the biggest car producers in Japan?
- how effective was it?
- How much did it cost?
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM
The “pillars of economic system are private property, the price system and competition. The right to private property gives the owners of natural resources and capital the incentive to use their assets as they can. The price system provides the answers to the fundamental questions of: “What goods ad services will be produced? How will they be produced? Who will receive them?” Competition refers to the rivalry among buyers and among sellers.
Economic incentives influence our decisions about what and where to buy. The desire to achieve the greatest profit for our efforts is the principal economic incentive in the American and other market economies. Economists refer to this as economic self-interest.
Profits are what remains after the costs of production have been deducted from sales. The quest for profits, or the profit motive, as it is often called, is the force that drives our economic system.
People in business buy or sell land or other natural resources if they think they can profit frome transaction. They also put those resources to use in such a way as to make the greatest profit. Profits affect the allocation of labour, influence the allocation of capital resources.
Government in America functions at three levels: federal, state and local. The following economic responsibilities axe best fulfilled by government:
-sateguarding the market system;
-providing public goods and services;
-assisting those in need;
-helping specific groups;
-stabilizing the economy.
Answer the following questions:
- What are the “pillars” of economic system?
- What does the right to private property gives the owners of natural resources and capital?
- How do prices influence American economic system?
- What does competition refer to ?
- What is the force that drives our economic system?
- What is the role of profits in the economic system?
7.What economic responsibilities are best fulfilled by government?
Give English equivalents of the following:
Економічні стимули , опора , конкуренція , забезпечувати , впливати , прибуток,
Відповідальність , уряд ,приватна власність ,рішення ,ресурси , власники, активи.
Translate into English :
- Приватна власність , цінова система , конкуренція – головні опори економічної системи.
- Цінова система відповідає на такі питання – а) які товари та послуги вироблятимуться б) як їх вироблятимуть в) хто їх отримуватиме. 3) Економічні стимули впливають на наші рішення , що і де купити. 4.Бізнесмени купують або продають землю чи інші природні ресурси , якщо сподіваються на прибуток від цієї угоди.
In order to employ factors of production, a firm has to have finance. This is usually divided into working capital and fixed capital. Working capital is for purchasing single-use factors or “variable factors”. They are labour, raw materials, petrol, stationery, fertilizers, etc. Finance for working capital can be obtained from a variety of sources: banks, trade, credit, finance companies, advance deposits from customers and the government. For example, a company may secure some funds through the Enterprise Allowance Scheme that on conditions provides an allowance of $60 per week for a year when starting a new business.
Fixed capital covers factors that are used many times – factories, machines, land, lorries, etc. Some finance for fixed capital is therefore required initially for advance payments on factory buildings, machinery and so on before the firm is earning revenue, though it is possible to convert fixed capital into working capital by leasing or buying on deferred payments through a finance company. Thus many companies, especially new ones, raise capital, both working and fixed, by borrowing, by selling their shares.
- Answer these questions:
- What is the idea of the Enterprise Allowance Scheme in the UK?
- What must a firm have to employ factors of production?
3. What is working capital used for?
4. Where can finance for working capital be obtained?
5. What does fixed capital cover?
- Make and translate sentences:
Working capital is for purchasing …… equipment
It is possible to raise some money by ….. renting buildings
getting a few loans
buying on deferred payment
When starting a new business he … …. had an allowance of $60 a week
paid lower taxes for a year
rented a small office
employed only a few people
economized every penny
III. Complete these sentences:
- In order to employ factors of production …
- In order to increase production …
- In order to finance this project…
- In order to register a new company…
- In order to increase vocabulary…
- Form disjunctive questions:
- 1. You haven’t read this book …
- You speak English
- He doesn’t speak Chinese …
- You are a student…
- There were many people …
- The children have seen this film …
- Translate the nouns:
Financier, purchaser, user, trader, creditor, renter, hirer, borrower, buyer, employer,
employee, payer, payee, leaseholder, franchise-holder.
The UK markets in securities
The markets on which securities are dealt in are:
– the Stock Exchange, the main market
– the United Securities Market (USM), a market for smaller companies seeking moderate sums of outside finance
– the over-the counter market (OTC) which is independent.
The first two are part of the Stock Exchange. At the same time the Stock Exchange is developing a Third Market which will eventually take over present OTC business. The Stock Exchange, as a Self Regulating Organization, issues guidelines to members and ensures that these rules are adhered to. We still refer to the stock Exchange although dealing is no longer on the floor of the House. Instead there is the Stock Exchange Automated Quotation system (SEAQ) that is the electronic market- place of the London stock market. Information from the sixty-four market-makers on prices and deals made is fed into SEAQ and displayed on screens. This enables the market-maker to quote a selling price and a lower buying price. The difference will be larger when the shares are only dealt in infrequently or where the sale of comparatively few shares can lead to a larger fall in price.
- Make verbs from these words with the help of the prefix “en- “:
Sure, able, list, title, trust, courage, circle, force, close, large, danger
- Make these words negative with the help of the prefix “non-“:
Member, resident, smoker, stop, existence, interference, alliance, profit, interest.
III.Write words having the opposite meaning of:
Small, main, independent, frequent, moderate, to fell, outside.
- Make sentences
This enables the employers to quote a better price to
the manufactures reduce the price
the company to increase wages
to agree to the changes
to launch an advertising campaign
to increase salaries
The Stock Exchange these rules
The company these regulations
The Union this instruction
The organization this code of conduct is \ are adhered to
- Choose the correct voice from:
1.We may say there are three markets on which securities (deal, are_dealt) in.
- The information (feeds, is fed) into the system.
- The information (is displayed, displays) on the screen.
- The 1999 targets (attained, were attained).
- The prices must (to be reconsidereod, to reconsider)
- The problem can easily (to settle, to be_settled)
VI. change as in the example paying attention to the use of the -ing forms:
- companies which seek moderate freight rates
- banks which seek high profits
- countries which seek immediate aid
- factories which produce foodstuffs
- installations which refine oil
GIVING CREDIT TO PEOPLE
An English businessman (B) is visiting a shoe factory in Birmingham, the second largest industrial center in
England. The .manager of the factory is accompanying him.
B: Your sales department is quite impressive. I see Bill White is in charge of it. He’s a friend of mine.
M: Bill White is a fine expert. He has done very well here. Little by little sales have increased. Thanks to
him, mostly. I’m sure. In terms of sales we rank the second in our industry now.
B: Everyone likes Bill He makes friends easily. That should be quite useful to you.
M: Yes, it is. He’s hit upon a new sales method too. It’s very effective. Where did you meet Bill?
B: In high school Even then he showed promise. He was a very serious student. He was fond of
psychology, mathematics, electronics and other things like these. The tutors spoke highly of him. They
gave credit to his deep knowledge.
M: We’re lucky to have Bill with us. We need more like him, men who can hold their own in any situation.
- Answer these questions:
1. What factory was the businessman visiting?
- Why do you think, the businessman was there?
- Who accompanied him around the factory?
- Where did the businessman meet Bill White?
- Why did the tutors speak highly of Bill?
- What proves that he is a fine expert?
- Translate these sentences into English:
Once at an informal party two post-graduates (A and B) who had not met for rather a long time, were speaking about their university mates and friends.
A: Fred is isn’t much he doesn’t know.
B: I think it’s his natural curiosity. He wants to know every thing. He doesn’t just scratch the surface either. He
really gets to the bottom of things.
A: Do you know what he explained to me today? The ins and outs of the stock market. He knows all about Wall
Street – all these stocks, shares, stock exchange quotations and what not.
B: Is he a stockbroker?
A: If I’m not mistaken, he is.
B: I have to confess something, didn’t think much of Fred first.
A: I understand. He’s very quiet He doesn’t make a good first impression. But he grows on you after a while.
B: He’s a far cry from his brother. Pete talks all the time and doesn’t say anything either.
A: There are too many Petes in the world
B: And not enough Freds.
- Answer these questions:
- Did you like the talk of two friends?
- Did they sound like two chatter-boxes?
- Why do you think they spoke so long about Fred?
- Why does Fred know so much?
- Is he different from his brother?
- Complete the sentences by using the words from the dialogue:
1. Fred explained to me the_____the stock market.
- He knows all about Wall Street ____ all these _____and what not.
- If I’ m not mistaken he is a_____
- He is remarkable. There isn’t much ________
- He just doesn’t scratch _________
- He wants to get to ___________
- I think it’s also his natural__________
Business Letter of Inquiry.
A.Q. Electronic Ltd..,
Call Estoril 1701,
The State Manager Computer, Ltd.
25, Dmytrivska Street
|30-th. May 2 001 2001|
We have read an article in “Office News” about your range of modern filing systems. We are
interested in introducing modern filing system in our main office. We also wish to install an
electronic system for the storage and retrieval of data.
Please send us price list and catalogues of electronic data processing systems quoting your prices.
We are particularly interested in type. . . , so we should be obliged if you inclose more detailed information about this particular model
Plan of Resume
1.Name, address, phone number.
2.Particular position, company (job objective)
3.Experience (achievements, skills)
4.Education + additional courses, specific company training programs, language courses
Mr. Paul Green
112 Kingston Road
Job objective: Finance and Administrative Manager
Company: Jaar International Inc.
recent position: 2001-1995 Supervised development of jnanagement information systems. Proved to have management skills. International trade company “Mars”, Great Britain.
Previous jobs: 1995-1990 Finance Manager. IBM computers Inc.
1990-1986 Bookkeeper. Glaxo International Co. coordinated costing, budgeting programs. Ukrainian office, Ukraine.
Education: 1986 Degree with Honors in Finance and Economy, Oxford University 1984-86 special language courses (French: Finance and Economy In France; Ukrainian: Ukrainian Tax Policy)
1982-84 Computer systems for Finance and Economy Personal Data: age 38, fluent in French, Ukrainian Profound computer skills: WinWord, Finance programs.