Variant 1

  1. Read the text below. For (1—7) choose T if the statement is true accordingto the text, and F if it is false. An example (1) has been done for you.

Human-made noise pollution in the Earth’s oceans and seas is becoming a serious threat to sea wildlife. Scientists report that there is hardly an underwater place left where sea mammals can live in peace and quiet. Dozens of species of whales, dolphins, turtles and other creatures depend on sound in their communication, finding mates and hunting for food. So noisy environment is making it difficult to lead a normal life. This is according to a report from the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), called «Ocean Noise: Turn it Down». The environmental group says noise from shipping, oil and gas surveys, and offshore construction and water sports has reached dangerous levels for sea life.

The IFAW says the distance over which blue whales can communicate is down by 90 per cent. It also reports that in the past decade, many whales have become beached after being disorientated because of loud noise. The group also warns that noise pollution is only going to get worse. There are 90 survey ships active in the oceans today. In addition, the number of ships sailing the seas will double by 2025. Mark Simmonds, an IFAW spokesman, said, «Man-made noise is already causing a kind of acoustic fog», and called for a «response to noise pollution in the underwater».

T 1) The noise humans make is harmful for creatures living in the oceans.

__2) There are very few quiet places left in the oceans.

__3) Sound doesn’t help sea animals to hunt for food and look for a mate.

__4) The distance over which blue whales can communicate has become larger.

__5) Noise pollution can mean whales lose their way and die on beaches.

__6) The number of ships on the seas is not going to change in the next 20 years.

__7) Mark Simmonds, a IFAW spokesman, said it’s very foggy in the oceans.


Variant 2

  1. Read the text below. For (1—7) choose T if the statement is true accordingto the text, and F if it is false. An example (1) has been done for you.

Road pollution is a serious danger to children’s health. Researchers from the

University of California spent 13 years studying children who lived within 500 metres of busy roads. They found that most of the 3,600 children in the study had weak lungs. Researchers said this meant the children could have breathing problems for the rest of their lives.

The main author of the study W. James Gauderman and his team conducted their research on youngsters who lived near busy roads and in high-pollution areas. Once a year, the team measured the children’s lung power. It checked how much air the children could release in one breath and how quickly it could be released. The team found that by their 18th birthday, children who lived within 500 metres of a highway breezed out three per cent less air compared with children who lived one-and-a-half kilometres away. Further, the highway children’s lung power was seven per cent weaker in the rate at which they could breeze out. Gauderman said that: «Even if you are in a relatively low regional pollution area, living near a road produces lung problems».

About a third of the children moved away from busy roads during the study but stayed near the same area. Their lungs developed more healthily.

F 1) Researchers monitored different children for 30 years.

__2) The text doesn’t say how many children in the study had lung problems.

__3) Living near a busy road doubles the chances of lung damage.

__4) Researchers tested the children’s lungs on a monthly basis.

__5) Children living 500 metres from busy roads had 30 % less lung power.

__6) Living near a busy road is still bad even if it’s in a low-pollution area.

__7) Children who moved away from roads still suffered lung problems

  1. Read the text below. Match choices (A—E) to (1—5). An example (1) has

been done for you.

  1. A) Work Is Honourable
  2. B) Some People Go through Life Hating and Avoiding Work
  3. C) So the Question You Must Ask Is «Why Do People Do It?»
  4. D) Work Gives You a Sense of Purpose
  5. E) Work Is a Means to Develop Character

A week has 168 hours. If you sleep eight hours a day, that leaves 112 hours per week of active time in your life. If you work about 50 hours a week, that is almost half of your week’s active time. This is a very significant part of your life that you spend working.

1 (C)

One simple answer is that most people need to earn money. But many

billionaires, like Bill Gates, Larry Ellison and Warren Buffett, spend a significant

amount of their time working, probably more than most people. And yet, they

don’t need any money. Let’s look at the advantages work can give us.

2 ( )

Many people go through their working life thinking about retirement. They

think about the day when they will just be able to sit back, relax and take it

easy. But when the day arrives they enjoy the first few months of their newly

found freedom and stress-free living, but after a while they start losing their

sense of purpose. Their work gave them a sense of being important that they

now miss, and they start to feel worthless.

3 ( )

In many lines of work, you have to deal with people and their personalities,

egos, beliefs, cultures, politics, habits, and all of the struggles and joys that

make up the human existence. You also face conflicts and hard choices. As

you gain experience in your work, you develop character. You learn how to

deal with different types of people and different situations.

4 ( )

When you do a good job, you feel a sense of pride and achievement. Being

able to work in whatever capacity, is an honourable activity.

5 ( )

But I haven’t seen a successful person yet that does not do any type of

work. Work is the very essence of what success is about

  1. Read the text below. Match choices (A—E) to (1—5). An example (1) has

been done for you.

  1. A) Some of Your Thoughts and Ideas Are Rather Stable and Permanent in Nature
  2. B) Success Is in Your Mind
  3. C) Get in the Habit of Writing
  4. D) Take Time to Think
  5. E) However, There Are Thoughts and Ideas Which Are Usually Temporary

1 (B)

Regardless of your definition of success, most people would agree that success

starts with your thoughts, your ideas and your beliefs — in other words, your mind. It is a great feeling to realize that with the power.

2 ( )

These are the beliefs, the habits, the behaviour, and all the other details

of the mind that make up the core of who you are. Knowledge, skills and

abilities are other components of your mind that have a somewhat stable

character. So a person’s beliefs, habits, personalities, knowledge, skills and

abilities are important components of success that will not disappear or be

lost in a passing moment.

3 ( )

These are the ideas that pass through your head in a moment of inspiration.

Most people don’t pay much attention to these temporary thoughts when

your mind reveals to you something that could result in a good opportunity.

4 ( )

Successful people understand the importance of spending quality time doing

high-level thinking. You should plan to have a time period of at least 30

minutes to one hour each day when you are alone and your mind is free

from fuss and disorder. Use this time to let your mind flow and reveal to you

the interesting ideas which you may dismiss when you are busy with other

things. When those thoughts come to you, don’t reject them. Let them fill

your mind with the possibilities and with your dreams of success.

5 ( )

You never know when great ideas will pop in your head. Therefore, it is very

important that you always carry with you a notebook and pen to write down

your ideas as soon as they come to you. This notebook can also be very useful

for writing down observations that will help you become successful. If you run

into a successful person that you admire, write down the habits and qualities,

or anything else about this person. If you observe something that is done with

excellence, or high quality, be it a product or a service, write it down.

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